2ine the OS/2 emulator

So this is really super cool! Ryan C. Gordon has written a Wine like program to run OS/2 programs!

Using 32bit Linux, and some native libraries, 2ine can load up an LX (32bit) executable and try to run it under Linux, much in the same way that Wine can run Windows programs.  And yes it’ll run EMX built stuff.  Although keep in mind the original Microsoft based languages, programs and tools is all 16bit.  After the whole Windows 3.0 thing and the split of Microsoft from the OS/2 project all their tools are either 16 bit, or 32bit LE format, which IBM had dumped for the LX format once OS/2 2.0 had shipped.

You can read about his incredible progress, and all the trials and tribulations of running OS/2 programs, along with the craziness that is thunking back and forth to the 16bit space for the old VIO calls that had never were updated to 32bit in that transition phase where a good chunk of OS/2 never was updated from 16bit, over on his patreon page here.

Attempting to run anything 16bit or LE will give you:

./lx_loader CL.EXE
not an OS/2 LX module

But let’s try my crazy Win32 hosted EMX 0.8h cross compiler!

C:\emx\demo\dhry>gcc -v dhyrstone.c -o dhyrstone.exe
gcc version 2.5.8
cpp -lang-c -v -undef -D__GNUC__=2 -D__GNUC_MINOR__=5 -D__32BIT__ -D__EMX__ -Di386 -D__32BIT__ -D__EMX__ -D__i386__ -D__32BIT__ -D__EMX__ -D__i386 -Asystem(unix) -Asystem(emx) -Acpu(i386) -Amachine(i386) dhyrstone.c C:\Temp/cca13032
GNU CPP version 2.5.8 (80386, BSD syntax)
#include “…” search starts here:
#include <…> search starts here:
End of search list.
cc1 C:\Temp/cca13032 -quiet -dumpbase dhyrstone.c -version -o C:\Temp/ccb13032
GNU C version 2.5.8 (80386, BSD syntax) compiled by GNU C version 5.1.0.
as -o C:\Temp/ccc13032 C:\Temp/ccb13032
ld -o dhyrstone.exe /emx/lib/crt0.o -L/emx/lib C:\Temp/ccc13032 -lgcc -lc -lgcc -lemxst -los2 -lemx2

And now running that on Linux…

root@alpharacks:/usr/src/2ine-4a8318f4056f# file dhyrstone.exe
dhyrstone.exe: MS-DOS executable, LX for OS/2 (console) i80386, emx 0.8c
root@alpharacks:/usr/src/2ine-4a8318f4056f# ./lx_loader dhyrstone.exe
Dhrystone(1.1) time for 5000000 passes = 3
This machine benchmarks at 1666666 dhrystones/second

You’d never know that this was an OS/2 program, if I didn’t tell you.

I tried the old 87 Infocom interpreter, and it’ll run great too!

root@alpharacks:/usr/src/2ine-4a8318f4056f# file infocom.exe
infocom.exe: MS-DOS executable, LX for OS/2 (console) i80386, emx 0.8c

root@alpharacks:/usr/src/2ine-4a8318f4056f# ./lx_loader infocom.exe advent.z3

At End Of Road Score: 36/0
Welcome to Adventure! Do you need instructions? (y/n) >n

A Modern Classic
Based on Adventure by Willie Crowther and Don Woods (1977)
And prior adaptations by David M. Baggett (1993), Graham Nelson (1994), and
Adapted once more by Jesse McGrew (2015)
Release 1 / Serial number 151001 / ZILF 0.7 lib J3

At End Of Road
You are standing at the end of a road before a small brick building. Around you
is a forest. A small stream flows out of the building and down a gully.

At End Of Road Score: 36/0

Again it’s works so well it’s amazing!

You can find the 2ine source over on icculus.org here.  I had to tweek the heck out of the CmakeList.txt to get it to build, and since I was interested in the command line, I ended up disabling all the SDL / PM stuff, and make sure I had the ‘wide/unicode’ version of ncurses installed.

I don’t think there really was any killer 32 bit OS/2 applications, but with clean room versions of:

  • doscalls.dll
  • kbdcalls.dll
  • msg.dll
  • nls.dll
  • quecalls.dll
  • sesmgr.dll
  • tcpip32.dll
  • viocalls.dll

Not to mention being able to call into Linux DLL’s and using ‘clean’ OS/2 DLL’s would let you embrace and extend OS/2.. Or maybe even let you build the proverbial fantasy of both RISC & 64 bit OS/2. …..

And we’re back

Dead cat bounce

Still waiting for a root cause, and checking some way to do live backups of everything…

Apparently all the kids are flocking to containers as the next way to deal with DLL hell, and as some flimsy response to BSD Jails… I guess that’ll be the next thing.


More cross compiler assertion fun

undefined reference to `___eprintf'

Got this fun one in dwarf.c (and probably many others) while building an ELF toolchain from Linux to run on Windows to target.. Linux.  Anyways I think this is a symptom of Canadian Cross compilers.

So a little digging and ___eprintf turns out to be from the assert.h as macros for assert depend on this being in libgcc.a .. And yeah, MinGW uses something else.  So just copy the assert.h from MinGW, and re-build and away it works.

int main(){printf("hi!\n");return 0;}
        .file   "stdin"
        .version        "01.01"
main.section   .rodata
        .string "hi!\n"
        .align 4
.globl main
        .type    main,@function
        pushl %ebp
        movl %esp,%ebp
        pushl $.LC0
        call printf
        addl $4,%esp
        xorl %eax,%eax
        jmp .L1
        .align 4
        .size    main,.Lfe1-main
        .ident  "GCC: (GNU)"

time in parse: 1.155000
time in integration: 0.000000
time in jump: 0.000000
time in cse: 0.000000
time in loop: 0.000000
time in cse2: 0.000000
time in flow: 0.000000
time in combine: 0.000000
time in sched: 0.000000
time in local-alloc: 0.000000
time in global-alloc: 0.000000
time in sched2: 0.000000
time in dbranch: 0.000000
time in shorten-branch: 0.000000
time in stack-reg: 0.000000
time in final: 0.000000
time in varconst: 0.000000
time in symout: 0.000000
time in dump: 0.000000

Well, wasn’t that fun?

BBSs and early Internet access in the 1990ies

This talk explains how individuals were able to communicate globally in the 1990ies using self-organized networks of BBSsin networks like FIDO and Z-Netz, before individual access to the Internet was possible. It also covers the efforts of non-profit organizations to provide individual access to Internet Mail+News via UUCP and later via IP during that period.

This talk covers how individuals could participate in local, regional and global message-based data communications in the 1990ies. It covers the technologies used to access such networks, both on the infrastructure (BBS) side, as well as on the user/client side.

At the same time, the talk is a bit of a personal journey from

  • accessing dial-up BBSs using accoustinc coupler and modem
  • becoming CoSysop of a BBS and learning about how to operatie BBSs
  • being a Node/Point in message based communications networks like Z-Netz and FIDO
  • using UUCP to participate in Internet mail/news (Usenet)
  • working in the technical team of Kommunikationsnetz Franken e.V. to set up a community-based ISP with modem and ISDN dial-up banks, satellite based Usenet feeds, analog leased lines ISDN-SPV.
  • helping getting Germany’s alleged first Internet Cafe (we then called it an Online Bistro) connected

I never was able to know anyone close enough to do fun stuff like back to back DSL modems, or even in this day & age run fiber optics, do ATM or anything fun like that.  As they say telecoms always break down at the last mile, or in my case the first mile.

Cross Compiling 386BSD 0.1pl23 from Windows 10

I bumped the version to *current year*

Oh yes, this will be a thing!

Sure I can cross compile Linux, but what about 386BSD?  This had long been a thorn in my side, as the GCC/Binutil toolchain that is used in this early era is not GNU pure, they had been modified in all kinds of ways.  One of which was a builtin memcpy that doesn’t work the same as a normal memcpy, and the other being that the C compiler & pre-processor rely in YACC to build the tokens.  I had been using bison before, however even though bison didn’t generate any errors it build the compiler wrong enough that the majority of the kernel wouldn’t compile.

As it stands right now, the only things that do not compile is locore

to post process the kernel, symorder is used along with dbsym, although neither do any processing to the kernel file itself, so they aren’t needed to get a working system.

386BSD Release 0.1 by William and Lynne Jolitz.
Copyright (c) 1989,1990,1991,1992 William F. Jolitz. All rights reserved.
Based in part on work by the 386BSD User Community and the
BSD Networking Software, Release 2 by UCB EECS Department.
386BSD 0.1.2018 (GENERICISA) 02/02/18 15:01

Other than that, yeah it’s great, compile a kernel in under 15 seconds.

Anyone that cares, the initial release is here: 386bsd01.7z


Revisiting a UnixWare 7.1.1 install on Qemu/KVM

So after nearly 8 years ago from messing around with UnixWare, I wanted to confirm something from a SYSV Unix that has a C compiler that isn’t GCC, and I remembered I have UnixWare 7.1.1 from a long time ago.  Anyways I have long since lost the virtual machine I had installed onto, but I still have media and of course the more important licenses.

unixware certificate of license and authenticity

UnixWare licenses. the dread of fixing things 20+ years later

Yep it’s the real thing.  So with my certs in hand I do an initial install in Qemu and on reboot the system basically has bricked itself.

WARNING: System is in an unreliable state.

And then looking at the licenses it turns out that my license has expired.  What?

Somehow I got lucky before, but it turns out that the installation process for ancient UnixWare is NOT Y2K compliant!  And this actually turned out to be a known issue.  I can’t find the original article, but a mirror is here: ischo.net

So basically install using an eval license, which will of course expire on install, and then use your actual license after the installation, remove the eval, reboot and all will be well.

License Number: UW711EVAL
License Code: airhorpx
License Data: d60;m7hjbtt

Now isn’t that great.

The OS install license immediately expires.

Although you can’t boot up in any real useful state, the networking will kick people off, and it’ll constantly complain that you are in license violation, you can at least bring up the SCO Admin tool, and add in your actual licenses, and then delete the evals.

And now we’re good!

Ok, now for the real fun part, flags and how to run with kvm/qemu.  Since I was loading this onto a server for remote access something like this works fine for me as I’m using the VNC remote console.

qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -m 1024 -smp 4 -hda UnixWare.vmdk -cpu pentium -net none -monitor telnet::444,server,nowait -curses -vnc -cdrom iso/SCO_UnixWare711.iso

So the key things are to restrict the CPU level, and I’ve deferred the network configuration so I can update network drivers, and the OS.  I’ve found that by doing the networking during the install resulted in an OS that crashed with an integer divide by zero after installing the fixpack 5.

Once you have UnixWare 7.1.1 installed, be sure to install Maintenance Pack 5, which is thankfully still online over at sco.com  I’d also recommend to do this in single user mode, you can enter single user mode by hitting a key during the boot logo and typing in:


And you’ll boot in single user mode, and can install the Maintenance pack with ease.  Until the maintenance pack is installed, expect poor stability, and the system won’t actually listen to the real time clock device, and it’ll accelerate the clock like crazy where I was passing an hour every minute or two.

Adding the AMD PCnet on UnixWare

Once the install and update is done, I just added a PCI network card (So older versions of Qemu work well with the ne2k_isa, but newer work much better with the AMD PCNet card.), which is a popular choice for both machines and VM’s of the era.  Although you can use SLiRP the built in NAT for Qemu/KVM alternatively you can also use tun/tap.  I tried to enable SMP, however it has issues binding to the other processors, although it does see them.  And this is better to give full access to the network stack for fun things like FTP, NFS and whatnot.

qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -m 1024 -smp 4 -hda UnixWare.vmdk -cpu pentium -monitor telnet::444,server,nowait -curses -vnc -device pcnet,netdev=net0 -netdev tap,id=net0,ifname=tap10,script=/etc/qemu-ifup

Telnet access

And just like that I can now access the VM.

And for fun…

# uname -a
UnixWare kvm711 5 7.1.1 i386 x86at SCO UNIX_SVR5
# uname -f
hw_provider=Generic AT

Oh yeah so I don’t forget years from now I’m using the following OS & Qemu version:

# qemu-system-x86_64 -version
QEMU emulator version 2.8.1(Debian 1:2.8+dfsg-6+deb9u3)

# cat /etc/issue
Debian GNU/Linux 9 \n \l

Also I found an eval serial for SMP, but it doesn’t recognize the second processor after the boot.

# psrinfo -v
Status of processor 0 as of 01/31/18 16:40:07
Processor has been on-line since 01/31/18 16:13:57.
The Pentium processor has a i387 floating point processor.
The following conditions exist:
Device drivers are bound to this processor.

I’ll try apparently this as for some reason it doesn’t detect the MP in Qemu/KVM so it never installed the osmp driver.

pkgadd -d cdrom1 osmp

Add the following line to the file /stand/boot:

Date and Time on UNIX V7

(This is a guest post by xorhash.)


I’ve recently defeated one of my bigger inconveniences, broken DEL as backspace on the UNIX®† operating system, Seventh Edition (commonly known as UNIX V7 or just V7). However, I’ve had another pet peeve for a while: How much manual labor is involved in booting the system. Reader DOS found out that SIMH recently added support for SEND/EXPECT pairs to react to output from the simulator. Think of them like UUCP chat scripts, effectively. This can be used to automate the bootup procedure.

Yet DOS’s script skips over a part of the bootup procedure that can be fully automated with some additional tooling. Namely, setting the date/time to the current time as defined by the host system. As per boot(8), the operator is meant to set the date/time every time the system is brought up. This should be possible to automate, right?

Setting the Date Automatically

date(1) itself does not support setting years past 2000, so we need custom code in any case. SIMH, fortunately, also provides a way to get the current timestamp in the form of %UTIME%, which is interpreted in any argument to any command. I’ve thus written a utility called tsdate that takes a timestamp as argument and sets the current time to be that timestamp. I put the executable in /etc/tsdate, but there’s really no reason to do so other than not wanting to accidentally call it. Once tsdate is in place, changing DOS’s script slightly will already do the trick:

expect "\n\r# " send "/etc/tsdate %UTIME%\r\004"; c

This approach already has a minor amount of time drift ab initio, namely the difference between the actual time on the host system and the UNIX timestamp. In the worst case, this may be very close to 1. If for some reason you need higher accuracy than this, you’ll probably have a fairly hard time. I could imagine some kind of NTP-over-serial, but you’d need support for chat scripts to get past the authentication due to getty(8) spawning login(1).

The system is not suitable for usage past the year 2038. However, you can at least push it back until around 2100 by changing the internal representation of time to be an unsigned long instead of simply a long. time_t was not used systematically. Instead, everything assumed long as the type for times. This assumption is in a lot of places in userspace and even the man pages use long instead of time_t.

If you overflow tsdate’s timestamp, you’ll just get whatever happens when atol(3) overflows. There’s nothing in the standard library for parsing strings into unsigned long and the year 2038 is far enough away that I didn’t want to bother. stime(2) would presumably also need to be adjusted.

Year 2000 Compatibility in the System

V7 is surprisingly good at handling years past 2000. Most utilities can print years up to and including 2099 properly. Macros for nroff(1)/troff(1), however, are blissfully unaware that years past 1999 may exist. This causes man pages to be supposedly printed in the year 19118. The root cause for this is that the number register yr only holds the current year minus 1900. Patches to the -ms and -man macros are required. Similarly, refer(1) only considers years until 2000 to be actual years, though I did not bother patching that since it should only affect keyword matching.

Leap year handling is broken in two different places due to wrong leap year handling: at(1) and the undocumented dysize() function, used by date(1) as well as inside /usr/src/libc/gen/ctime.c for various purposes. This affects the standard library, so recompiling the entire userland is recommended. Because the calculation is just a naïve division by four, it actually works on the year 2000 itself. A year is a leap year, i.e. has February 29, if a year is:

  1. a multiple of 4, and
    1. not a multiple of 100, or
    2. a multiple of 400.

Leap seconds are also not accounted for, but that comes to nobody’s surprise. Leap seconds just add a second 60 to the usual 00-59, so they don’t hurt doing date calculations on timestamps unless precisely on a leap second. For my purposes, they can be ignored.

Note that I haven’t gone through the system with a fine-toothed comb. There can always be more subtle time/date issues remaining in the system. For my purposes, this works well enough. If other things crop up, you’re welcome to put them in the comments for future generations.

The Good Stuff

There’s really not much to it. Applying diff and recompilation of the affected parts is left as an exercise for the reader.


  1. tsdate.c
  2. tsdate.1m
  3. y2kpatches.diff

† UNIX is a trademark of The Open Group.

Updated my DooM port

x68000 still won’t build on this, lots more to either separate out or just fork out.  No biggie.

The big plus is for GCC 2.x and higher that use DJGPP v2 runtimes is that the allegro music and sound work.  It tests faster than Watcom 10/11 or Open Watcom ..  probably DMX vs Allegro I suspect …

Things to do..

  • Upload my GCC cross toolchain
  • Upload the Freedoom build chain (again)
  • Test on real machines, the 486 and the P3

So yeah.  Limited progress.

Also it’s nice being able to cross build Allegro 3.12 in 10-15 seconds vs the hour+++ in emulation.

Project is in the djgppv1 cross thing


git access to clone

git clone git://git.code.sf.net/p/crossdjgppv1/DooM crossdjgppv1-DooM

make with:

make -f makefile.djgpp_v2

and you should be good to go

MinGW and missing DLL’s


Stuff like this drives me crazy.  Once upon a time everything was statically linked, there were no DLL’s, and all exe’s had a lot of the same code in them, and people realized that the majority of a hard disk could literally contain the same thing over and over.  Not to mention that if you were to fix some bug in say, LIBC you would have to re-compile everything.  So we entered the brave new world of dynamic linking where we now live in the proverbial DLL hell, that although we did save space, we have things where slight variations in the same DLL can break things in unforeseen ways.  People have tried various things such as weak linking, Side by side assemblies, Frameworks, and all kinds of things to try to keep things together.

Honestly it’s just easier to go back, and statically link things, and just re-build as needed.

common culprits of MinGW based stuff always include:

  • libwinpthread-1.dll
  • libgcc_s_dw2-1.dll
  • libstdc++-6.dll


The hard one is the pthread library.  If you try to link it statically it’ll try to link everything else statically and not every DLL can link statically (SDL* keep reading).  But GCC / Binutils does have the option to turn various features on and off through the link string

-static-libstdc++ -static-libgcc -Wl,-Bstatic -lstdc++ -lpthread -Wl,-Bdynamic

As you can see, everything after “-Wl,-Bstatic” will be linked statically, while everything after “-Wl,-Bdynamic” will go back to being dynamically linked.

Ok, that is great but what about SDL, you may ask.  Well sure it’s a DLL, but even DLL’s come from somewhere.  Download the source, build it yourself and you can directly link the objects that make up the DLL.  In version 1.2.15 they live in the .libs directory.


And on Windows, if you get weird errors like:

SDL_dx5events.o: In function `DX5_DInputInit’:
SDL-1.2.15/./src/video/windx5/SDL_dx5events.c:183: undefined reference to `IID_IDirectInputDevice2A’

Just add the -ldxguid library and you can link this too.  I’m sure once upon a time people may not have had DirectX 5 or higher, but this isn’t 1997.

And please at least test your programs with no path, so that way you are aware of what is needed for re-distribution.

set path=.


It gets so old when people never test.  And people freak out trying to download DLL’s from weird sites, and you know that never ends well.

Oh yeah, and a static version of DOSBox is 4MB.

4,033,550 dosbox.exe

I know that was massive a long long time ago, but today?

Teaching an old IRC dog some new tricks

I don’t know why, but I’ve always liked the ancient Microsoft Comic Chat IRC client.  Even though it has well deserved a really poor reputation for not strictly adhering to any standard, and being very ‘noisy’ and … poorly behaved.  But I find it works pretty well.  Or at least it did.


Somewhere in the mists of time a lot of IRC servers slightly changed how they work, and lots of ancient IRC clients were left broken.  I’d fixed IRC II on Xenix, but without source, fixing Comic Chat was out of the question.

But naturally the real solution was a proxy.  And here is richardg867’s proxy.py.  And it offers three great features, namely it’ll fix the way Comic Chat joins a channel, and how users are displayed so everyone isn’t a channel op.  The best part is that it also includes the ability to connect to servers via SSL, meaning you can encrypt your connection to the IRC network

It’s a tiny Python server, and the Linux Subsystem for Windows can happily run it with zero modifications.

python proxy.py -p 6667 chat.freenode.net +6697

Running it like this will listen on port 6667 aka the default IRC port, and then connect to chat.freenode.net using SSL on port 6697.  And it works great!

Comic Chat Connected!

One thing to keep in mind is that initially the client is set to BOLD for some reason.  Just as you have to tell it to not spam channels with Comic Chat info, hitting control+b will end the bold and now you can message the NickServ, and unless someone hits up your info nobody will be the wiser.

It’s vital to NOT send Comic Chat specific information

People get really annoyed at the whole OMG it’s a Microsoft IRC client from 1996-1998 but yeah established protocols only slightly drift, with a little bit of help you too can keep using ancient software in a dangerous and scary modern world!