Building MIT PC/IP, or making apple pie

“If you want to make a pie from scratch, you must first create the universe”

–Carl Sagan

A little while ago I had touched briefly on the availability of of a PCC port to the 8086 done back in the early 1980’s that was hosted on VAX running 4.1BSD. I’d ruled it basically useless as you are restricted to 64kb .COM files, and I couldn’t get much of anything interesting running on it.

After all the fun of setting up NetManage Chameleon on Windows 3.0, over on IRC lys had mentioned I should try the MIT PC/IP stack. I never knew anything about it’s history but it became the first PC TCP/IP stack. You can read more about it from Internaut?

Dave Clark had gone to England for sabbatical and while he was there, had implemented TCP/IP in BCPL for the TRIPOS operating system, a predecessor of the Commodore AMIGA operating system. He brought the TCP/IP code back with him, and the Lab for Computer Science had a bunch of Xerox Alto workstations, and someone at LCS ported Dave’s TCP/IP to the Alto.

Then someone ported it to Version 6 UNIX and rewrote it in C. And that was what we took, and ported to PC DOS. At that point there were no C compilers that ran on the PC, and we were using a compiler that ran on a PDP 11/45 on Version 6 UNIX, and then on a VAX 750 running BSD v4.1. That was the AT&T; portable C compiler, and a group of people on the fourth floor of the LCS had written an 8088 code generator for it. This was before Microsoft C, and before 4.2 BSD.

Our first tasks were to bring up TFTP, TCP, and a telnet client under DOS. Several people were involved. Lou Konopelski did the initial TCP and telnet work, and Dave Brigham did similar work to what I did.

John Romkey – InternautHow PC-IP Came to Be

What is even more notable about PCIP is that it’s the reason the whole ‘MIT License’ even exists, as word seems to have spread quickly about a TCP/IP stack for the IBM PC compatible market. Jerome Saltzer has documented it all, if you want to read about it (WARNING PDF!)

Romkey would even then go on to found FTP software in that wonderful pre public internet era, before the eternal September.

Over on bitsavers there are 3 files:

[   ]8086_C_19850820.tar2019-03-12 14:36750K 
[   ]PC-IP_19850124.tar2019-03-12 11:534.6M 
[   ]PC-IP_19860403.tar2019-03-12 11:536.9M

Of course, the one thing that stands out is that these files look tiny. They aren’t even compressed! PCC, or the Portable C Compiler was released from AT&T, itself written in C, to make porting the C compiler easier to further allow Unix to be further easily ported. Now that I kind of had a mission, I decided to take the 8086 PCC leap, again.

Get the time machine ready!

A man, his best friend and a time machine! – Microsoft Sydney

Thankfully I had that 4.1c BSD image still up on sourceforge, aptly named: 4.1c BSD.7z, so I could follow my old instructions to create the tap file and start working with 8086 C, going back from 1985. And in no time, I had re-built the compiler, and assembler up and running. But I wanted more, as much fun as 4.1BSD is, I wanted to run everything natively on Windows.

At this point I’d remembered that this setup is a bit odd in that the object files that the assembler produces are OMAGIC (type 0407) a.out files. Thinking back to my old project of building Ancient Linux on Windows using vintage tools, it also uses OMAGIC a.out files! It’s not that unexpected as the original GNU ld linker from 1986 has hooks for both old magic & new magic (OMAGIC/NMAGIC) files, as this would be consistent from the era. Thinking this was my out, I might have a way of migrating the build process off of the VAX.

The first pass was to try to pull in all the VAX includes into my native Visual C++ 1.0, and get it to build with Microsoft C/C++ 8.0. The next thing to do of course, is look for where it’s doing anything with binary files and make sure it’s all set to O_BINARY/”rb”/”wb” where appropriate as MS-DOS/Win32/OS2 all handle text files differently from binary data. There is also fights with mktemp along with procedure name creep, like how ’round’ wasn’t a thing in 1980 but it sure is by 1993! Before the era of the 486DX/68040/Pentium not everyone had a math co-processor (FPU) so it’d make sense that a lot of things wouldn’t have this by default.

As a quick refresher the following diagram may be specific to the GNU GCC compiler, but the older PCC compiler uses the same methodology of first pre-processing files, then compiling them, assembling the resulting compiler output, then finally linking to an executable program. ( See – “So it turns out GCC could have been available on Windows NT the entire time“)

a rough explanation of how old C compilers work in stages

The steps for PCC 8086 are quite similar but to spell them out:

  • Pre-process with GNU cpp
  • Compile with PCC’s c86
  • Assemble with PCC’s a86
  • Link with GNU’s ld
  • Extract the MS-DOS .COM file with cvt86

There isn’t much to talk about the pre-processor, so I’ll skip it, suffice to say from my cl386 research, and porting GCC to OS2/NT, it just worked.

Compiling the compiler

Surprisingly getting the compiler running wasn’t too difficult. I do remember getting this running before, so seeing it run again wasn’t too much of a surprise. The simple C program:

printf("hi from 8086 pcc\n");

Gives us the following generated assembly:

        .globl  _main
        push    bp
        mov     bp,sp
        push    si
        push    di
        sub     sp,#LF1
        mov     ax,#L14
        push    ax
        call    _printf
        pop     cx
        lea     sp,*-4(bp)
        pop     di
        pop     si
        pop     bp
        LF1 = 0
        .byte   104,105,32,102,114,111,109,32
        .byte   56,48,56,54,32,112,99,99
        .byte   10,0

So far, so good, right! Even for fun, I was able to build it using Microsoft C 6.0! I figured I may as well try to get as much out of that purchase as possible.

Strage binary formats in a strange world

One thing that was a constant problem for me is that the assembler generated garbage, it never gave me the a.out OMAGIC file. Opening it up in a hex editor, Hex Editor Neo, and it showed problem, right away.

A simple do nothing program, assembled on the VAX

The OMAGIC sequence in hex should be written down as 07 01, but when I looked at the output from my PC port the file was not only too big but it didn’t have the headder:

The same program assembled on the PC

As you can see it’s just a bunch of zeros up front. Later on, I’d realize this was a ‘pad’ so it could be filled in later by the assembler when doing relocations. The file in question was rel.c which also should have been the hint. I don’t know if anyone saw it, but let me highlight it for you:

The OMAGIC header is being appended!

As you can see, where the file ends on the VAX, on the PC the OMAGIC header is being appended. I did a simple cut & paste in the editor, and the object file validated just fine. So why was this happening? In my rush to just add ‘binary’ flags to any file operations I had seen this in rel.c:

		(dout = fopen(Rel_name, "a")) == NULL)

I had taken this be an ‘append’ for whatever reason it would need to do that kind of thing. Well maybe that’s what it means in 1993, but in 1981 it doesn’t append, instead it just opens it normally. Is this a bug in the assembler, or a feature of 4.1BSD? Without debugging it, I just modified it to not append, as this was the only occurrence of an explicit append in the source code I could see.

		(dout = fopen(Rel_name, "wb")) == NULL)

And that did the trick, I now had a working assembler running on my PC!

But we are not out of the woods yet!

Naturally trying to build a much ‘larger’ Fibonacci program crashed the assembler. Luckily debugging it was a snap to find out that it was trying to free a static pointer. Or so I think. Today, in the future RAM is cheap, so I just commented out the offending free and now it was off to the linker.

When is advanced optimization a bad idea?

When the machine you wrote this for no longer exists. In the middle of the ld86 linker is this line:

		asm("movc3 r8,(r11),(r7)");

I have no idea why it’s there.

I don’t know what it should be doing.

This makes the linker un-portable.

However, as I’d mentioned before I did have the GNU linker that I’d successfully used to build Linux kernels, so there was hope!

C:\msvc32s\proj86pcc>\aoutgcc\bin\ld.exe -X -r -o hi.out crt0.b hi.b ./libc.a
C:\msvc32s\proj86pcc>cvt86 hi.out
hello from pcc for 8086!

I had now successfully run my first program without using the VAX. Although I had not mentioned a step yet, cvt86, this utility is described as creating a MS-DOS .COM file from an a.out file. I didn’t look into how it accomplishes this, but basically, it’s another linker. And this issue would come to complicate things as I had thought that everything was working.

libc & the heart of C

Libc, is simply put the central C library for getting everything done. While crt0 will setup the C environment everything else core from opening files, writing to the screen, and reading keyboard input is done through libc. So I thought re-building libc would be easy enough. To build the library you ‘archive’ them with the ‘ar’ archiver, then index them with ‘ranlib’. And again, from my a.out adventures building Linux I had both tools, however no matter what I was doing they did not work with cvt86. I wen’t back and rebuilt some kernels to verify, and yes it does generate archives but cvt86 was not happy.

I still had the SIMH VAX running in case I needed it, so I just broke down and figured I’d just port the VAX ar/ranlib to the PC. I don’t know off hand what the problem was, and I didn’t feel like spending an eternity to try to correct it, and both of the programs are somewhat portable. But of course it wasn’t that simple as ar opens files in strange ways that work on 4.1BSD but yeild chaos on the PC.

#define ARMAG   "!<arch>\n"

#define SARMAG  8

#define ARFMAG  "`\n"

‘ar’ has it’s own magic, a simple !<arch> and a ` followed by a new line. On any UNIX the \n is 10 in decimal 0xa in hex. But on the PC it’s carriage return and linefeed! And yes despite setting all the opens to binary, it was constantly injecting carriage returns & linefeeds all over the place! Some-how the file was being opened in text mode. Thankfully debugging even in old Visual C is great and inspecting the temporary files lead me to find this part:

			f = creat(file, larbuf.lar_mode & 0777);

In a few places it uses the creat (or create call. In an interview Dennis Ritchie had mentioned that this was one of his regrets in life, not naming creat create) call, which of course never has to set a mode, as everything is binary in Unix, unlike the PC. Great.

Luckily the fix was very simple after every creat, simply set the file mode to binary.



Apple pie!

Fibonacci sequence

Now I could re-build libc from source and link it to the Fibonacci program!

Yes it’d take this long to get to the point where I can now easily edit file on a modern machine and have a Win32 native toolchain! VAX no longer required! We’ve successfully extracted everything we needed from the 1980’s!

First contact!

Now it’s time to look at what brought us on this adventure, MIT PC/IP.

The MIT PC/IP (PCIP) does require changes to the libc to work correctly. Unfortunately, they didn’t provide the full copy of the libc, but rather some ed scripts. So, the first question is do I even have the version these are based off of to start? I don’t know, so I had guessed, and I had guessed incorrectly.

3com 3c501

Configuring PCIP is somewhat involved, first you need MS-DOS 2.00 or greater which thankfully in the future is FREE! The next thing you need is a 3com 3c501 card. This is going to be a challenge but it’s just as any good time to mention 86box, and the latest version that I’ve been using that of course supports this kind of setup!

New version 4.1.1

I can’t recommend it enough, 86box is like all the inconveniences of old software & hardware without having to spend a fortune for weird combinations, fighting to have space for it. I naturally setup a 386sx with CGA, 20Mb hard disk and a 3c501 card. It’s nice being able to also be very task specific, this doesn’t have to be a DooM/Quake machine!

the first thing you need to do is add the netdev.sys device driver that is created as part of building PCIP from source. a simple:


in your config.sys is more than enough. However, how do you configure it? Well it’s the ‘custom’ program that binary edit’s the device driver.


Setting stuff up is somewhat straight forward, however it displays TCP/IP information in decimal not in hex. I haven’t even looked into the how or why.

The first page

The first page options are kind of banal, it’s back in the day when people would use finger to find people on the internet and call them up or send emails. How cute. 1985 was a different world!

hardware options

In the hardware options the only thing to check is the I/O base, IRQ & DMA for the Ethernet card. I just configured the card around 0x300/5/1 as it’s great being purpose built!

telnet options

There is a separate window for telnet options. Naturally high speed connections frame far too fast for something built from 1985. I found lowering the TCP windows really helped with pacing.

Site config

As I had mentioned the site configuration displays all the information in decimal. Also, I’m wasn’t sure what is going on with the netmask, but looking at the old Windows calculator revealed it was being stored in OCTAL. It’s probably why the addresses have commas instead of periods. Although I had configured DNS it didn’t work, as it uses UDP port 42. It’s clearly doing something very early 1980’s.

The status CR/LF is broken!

So close and yet so far away. The only thing to do was try to figure out which of the libc stuff was ‘newest’ in the pure state and try to figure out where to go from there.


While I had not configured the libc correctly, I had partial success! I could actually establish a telnet session! Libc wasn’t working correctly as every line feed didn’t generate a carriage return, as you’d need for MS-DOS leaving it with broken status.

But at the same time, despite all the weird ‘challenges’ for the most part ‘it just worked’. Which is pretty cool!

It turns out the answer was the 8086_C_19850820 file. As far as I can tell there was only one thing that didn’t patch correctly but I was able to build a libc in no time.. that didn’t work. In the patch it removes ulrem/auldiv from arith.a86 Not sure why, I haven’t messed with it. But that means I had to restructure to build with the non floating point n86c compiler as that’s the way PCIP is expected to be built. After rebuilding with this compiler and this seemingly properly patched library I finally had it working!

Ping my local gateway!

Instead of a garbled mess, I had something I could read!

telnetting to my test BBS

Now instead of a garbled mess, I can see it was trying to display the connected IP, and a clock.

Sadly it doesn’t work with SLiRP. I’m sure it’s either classful routing or it really doesn’t like how SLiRP handles ARP. I suspect it’s also trying to do old style classful routing as well, which means you can’t just load arbitrary subnet masks wherever you want, to try to squeeze the 4 billion IP’s out of the internet.

The updated telnet client connecting to a test BBS

Final thoughts

I suspect that although there were binaries in the above tar files, going through the effort to rebuild PCIP really wasn’t all that expected for most people to carry out. Sadly, there was no shared source ‘sites’ online, and we’re lucky enough someone kept a few tarballs lying around. I really can’t blame them for sticking with then current development tools, especially for what you’d need to build a C compiler back in the early 80’s. It’s a shame the QL or the Macintosh didn’t have the RAM or the DASD capacity to become that home cross compiler of the 80’s.

Most project just require you to work on that actual project, while this has been a substantially larger undertaking from anything normal, but I guess I’ve learned a bit along the way with all those “pointless” GCC port things I’d done, well it turns out they are incredibly useful! It’s been a fun archeological expedition for me, thankfully C is still a thing, I wonder what happened to all the ADA/Perl/Pascal/”Wave of the future” stuff that is always disappearing. At least more and more people work on full system emulation so there is always that!

For anyone that curious you can find all the code over on github:

Against my better judgement, I’ve added a binary package on github.

On the trail of PCC for the 8086

While on discord the topic came up of why there is no good/free C compiler for MS-DOS. Oh sure there is OpenWatcom but the 2 heavy hitters of the era, Microsoft C & Borland C are not open in the slightest.

There is DeSmet C, although it’s source is full of unnamed structs meaning that building it with anything sane would require a ‘lot of work ™’ which of course is not what I’m all that about. Instead, I remembered a directory up on TUHS /Applications/Portable_CC with a zip file Although this is a zip file, you’ll want to unzip on something Unix-y as there is a lot of case duplicate files. That said this is a PCC port to the 8086, which includes a libc, 8087 support, and is all expected to be built on a VAX-11/780 running 4.1BSD. Now this ended up being a stumbling block because I tried a *LOT* of things thinking that they were upwards compatible with 4.1, and the answer is USE 4.1!

So to effectively get going you’ll need a SIMH VAX780 and just follow my old steps on Installing 4.1BSD. As far as the zip file, I used Linux but had to create a tar file specifying the Unix v7 format with:

tar --format=v7 -cf pcc.tar .

And of course, convert the tar file to a simh tap file. Or if you are like me, just download a tap file here: PCC-Machines.tap.bz2.

With that said it’s a very strange setup as it relies on the 4.1BSD Vax environment so much that there is assembly injected into the linker.

asm("movc3 r8,(r11),(r7)");

So this will not cleanly run. Just as it depends on many system a.out specifics on building for MS-DOS. It’s not so much a MS-DOS tool chain, rather it outputs to vax a.out and uses a slightly modified vax linker. The MS-DOS magic happens in the conversion of the final a.out into a com file.

That is right it’s a VAX specific cross compiler that only build’s COM files.

I’ve managed to build some trivial stuff, and they work. Sadly my attempt at building that InfoTaskforce of ’87 failed.

I haven’t dug that much further into the linker although I have to wonder if a GNU cross linker to make a.out could make something that the conversion program would be happy with. The assembler of course doesn’t work, perhaps it’s something with packing structs?

As always, the simple stuff looks trivial but it was a fair bit involved.

Since there is no real ‘cc’ it’s a script but the vauge steps are:

/lib/cpp -I/usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/lib86/include hi.c hi.i
/usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/c86/c86 < hi.i > hi.a86
/usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/a86/a86 hi
/usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/a86/ld86 -X -N -r -o hi.out /usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/lib86/crt0.b hi.b /usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/lib86/libc.a 
/usr/src/pcc/Machines/8086/a86/cvt86 hi.out

It kind of makes sense.

Seems like somehow a lost opportunity in of itself back in the day

I just saw on the PCC mailing list that it just built NetBSD

From Iain Hibbert:

On Mon, 9 May 2011, Anders Magnusson wrote:

> Modified Files:
> pcc/arch/i386: table.c
> Log Message:
> Simple fix to avoid bug reported in Jira#PCC-343 by Iain Hibbert.

and so, pcc achieves another milestone..

kernel text is mapped with 3 large pages and 302 normal pages
Loaded initial symtab at 0xc0e37650, strtab at 0xc0ecdaa0, # entries 38363
Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

NetBSD 5.99.48 (PCC) #1: Tue May 10 07:49:08 BST 2011
[email protected]:/var/work/NetBSD-current/obj.i386/sys/arch/i386/compile/PCC
total memory = 127 MB
avail memory = 110 MB
mainbus0 (root)
cpu0 at mainbus0 apid 0: QEMU Virtual CPU version 0.13.0, id 0x633
cpu1 at mainbus0 apid 1: QEMU Virtual CPU version 0.13.0, id 0x633
ioapic0 at mainbus0 apid 2
acpi0 at mainbus0: Intel ACPICA 20110211
pckbc1 at acpi0 (KBD, PNP0303) (kbd port): io 0x60,0x64 irq 1
pckbc2 at acpi0 (MOU, PNP0F13) (aux port): irq 12
FDC0 (PNP0700) at acpi0 not configured
LPT (PNP0400) at acpi0 not configured
COM1 (PNP0501) at acpi0 not configured
hpet0 at acpi0 (HPET, PNP0103-0): mem 0xfed00000-0xfed003ff
apm0 at acpi0: Power Management spec V1.2
pckbd0 at pckbc1 (kbd slot)
pckbc1: using irq 1 for kbd slot
wskbd0 at pckbd0 mux 1
pms0 at pckbc1 (aux slot)
pckbc1: using irq 12 for aux slot
wsmouse0 at pms0 mux 0
pci0 at mainbus0 bus 0: configuration mode 1
pchb0 at pci0 dev 0 function 0: vendor 0x8086 product 0x1237 (rev. 0x02)
pcib0 at pci0 dev 1 function 0: vendor 0x8086 product 0x7000 (rev. 0x00)
piixide0 at pci0 dev 1 function 1: Intel 82371SB IDE Interface (PIIX3) (rev. 0x00)
piixide0: primary channel interrupting at ioapic0 pin 14
atabus0 at piixide0 channel 0
piixide0: secondary channel interrupting at ioapic0 pin 15
atabus1 at piixide0 channel 1
piixpm0 at pci0 dev 1 function 3
piixpm0: vendor 0x8086 product 0x7113 (rev. 0x03)
piixpm0: 24-bit timer
piixpm0: interrupting at ioapic0 pin 9
iic0 at piixpm0: I2C bus
vga1 at pci0 dev 2 function 0: vendor 0x1013 product 0x00b8 (rev. 0x00)
wsdisplay0 at vga1 kbdmux 1
drm at vga1 not configured
wm0 at pci0 dev 3 function 0: Intel i82540EM 1000BASE-T Ethernet, rev. 3
wm0: interrupting at ioapic0 pin 11
wm0: Ethernet address 52:54:00:12:34:56
makphy0 at wm0 phy 1: Marvell 88E1011 Gigabit PHY, rev. 0
makphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
isa0 at pcib0
lpt0 at isa0 port 0x378-0x37b irq 7
com0 at isa0 port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4: ns16550a, working fifo
com0: console
com0: kgdb
attimer0 at isa0 port 0x40-0x43
pcppi0 at isa0 port 0x61
midi0 at pcppi0: PC speaker
sysbeep0 at pcppi0
isapnp0 at isa0 port 0x279
npx0 at isa0 port 0xf0-0xff
fdc0 at isa0 port 0x3f0-0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2
attimer0: attached to pcppi0
acpicpu0 at cpu0: ACPI CPU
acpicpu1 at cpu1: ACPI CPU
wd0 at atabus0 drive 0
wd0: 5000 MB, 10158 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 10240000 sectors
atapibus0 at atabus1: 2 targets
cd0 at atapibus0 drive 0: cdrom removable
pad0: outputs: 44100Hz, 16-bit, stereo
audio0 at pad0: half duplex, playback, capture
boot device: wd0
root on wd0a dumps on wd0b
mountroot: trying smbfs…
mountroot: trying ntfs…
mountroot: trying nfs…
mountroot: trying msdos…
mountroot: trying lfs…
mountroot: trying ext2fs…
mountroot: trying ffs…
root file system type: ffs
clock: unknown CMOS layout
init: copying out path `/sbin/init’ 11
Tue May 10 07:50:12 GMT 2011
Starting root file system check:
/dev/rwd0a: file system is clean; not checking
swapctl: setting dump device to /dev/wd0b
swapctl: adding /dev/wd0b as swap device at priority 0
Starting file system checks:
Setting tty flags.
Setting sysctl variables:
ddb.onpanic: 2 -> 0
Starting network.
Hostname: qemu
IPv6 mode: host
Configuring network interfaces:.
Adding interface aliases:.
Building databases: dev, utmp, utmpx, services done
encoding -> uk
Starting syslogd.
Mounting all filesystems…
Clearing temporary files.
Updating fontconfig cache: done
Creating a.out runtime link editor directory cache.
Checking quotas: done.
swapctl: setting dump device to /dev/wd0b
Starting virecover.
Checking for core dump…
savecore: no core dump
Starting local daemons:.
Updating motd.
Starting inetd.
Starting cron.
Tue May 10 07:52:31 GMT 2011

NetBSD/i386 (qemu) (console)

login: root
May 10 07:52:45 qemu login: ROOT LOGIN (root) on tty console
Last login: Tue May 10 07:46:44 2011 on console
Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

NetBSD 5.99.48 (PCC) #1: Tue May 10 07:49:08 BST 2011

Welcome to NetBSD!

This system is running a development snapshot of the NetBSD operating system,
also known as NetBSD-current. It is very possible that it has serious bugs,
regressions, broken features or other problems. Please bear this in mind
and use the system with care.

You are encouraged to test this version as thoroughly as possible. Should you
encounter any problem, please report it back to the development team using the
send-pr(1) utility (requires a working MTA). If yours is not properly set up,
use the web interface at:

Thank you for helping us test and improve NetBSD.

Terminal type is vt100.
We recommend that you create a non-root account and use su(1) for root access.
qemu# ls
.cshrc .klogin .lesshst .login .profile .shrc
qemu# cat >test.c
main(int ac, char *av[])
printf(“Hello World!\n”);
return 0;
qemu# pcc -o test test.c
qemu# ./test
Hello World!
qemu# shutdown -p now
Shutdown NOW!
shutdown: [pid 369]
wall: You have write permission turned off; no reply possible

*** FINAL System shutdown message from root@qemu ***
System going down IMMEDIATELY

May 10 07:54:14 qemu shutdown: poweroff by root:

System shutdown time has arrived

About to run shutdown hooks…
Stopping cron.
Waiting for PIDS: 345.
Stopping inetd.
Waiting for PIDS: 308.
Removing block-type swap devices
swapctl: removing /dev/wd0b as swap device
Tue May 10 07:54:57 GMT 2011

Done running shutdown hooks.
May 10 07:55:10 qemu syslogd[151]: Exiting on signal 15
syncing disks… 3 done

unmounting 0xcb6de004 /proc (procfs)…
unmounting 0xcb68f004 /dev/pts (ptyfs)…
unmounting 0xcb65f604 /kern (kernfs)…
unmounting 0xca77820c / (/dev/wd0a)…
unmounting 0xca77820c / (/dev/wd0a)…
cd0: detached
sysbeep0: detached
midi0: detached
atapibus0: detached
npx0: detached
pcppi0: detached
atabus1: detached
makphy0: detached
wm0: detached
pchb0: detached
audio0: detached

unmounting 0xca77820c / (/dev/wd0a)…
forcefully unmounting / (/dev/wd0a)…
wd0: detached
atabus0: detached
acpi0: entering state S5